January 2, 2021

portland slag cement setting time

Chen et al. Japan's largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies Ordinary Portland Cement 33 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement 43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement 53 Grade Portland Slag Cement Portland Pozzolana Cement Coloured Cement/White Cement Sulphate Resisting Cement Low Heat Portland Cement Rapid […] They contained a chloride content of 2.03% and 2.13% and a hydrocarbon content of 4.20% and 10.95%, respectively, so the mixes were denoted as low and high oil content mixes. At early exposure ages, concrete containing slag will have a similar to slightly higher diffusion coefficient than in plain portland cement concrete, but at ages greater than 90 days, it will have a lower diffusion coefficient. The strength grades of slag cement can be divided into 32.5, 32.5R, 42.5, 42.5R, 52.5, 52.5R, and their ages should be no less than the value in Table 4.4. Portland slag cement, which is most commonly used in the region, was used for the study complying with IS 455 [21]. The general trend was that AAS expanded less than OPC, especially for low opal content (3%). The decrease of slag cement in clinker can cause the reduction of C3S content and C3A content which will release much heat at the hydration of cement. According to Portland blast furnace slag Cement, Portland Pozzolana Cement, and Portland fly-ash Cement (GB1344-1999), the national standard, the content of magnesium oxide in clinker should not exceed 5.0%. At first, the minerals in cement clinker react with water and generate calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminate hydrate, calcium ferrite hydrate and calcium hydroxide. (1999) investigated several factors affecting the alkali-aggregate reaction, such as the basicity of slags or the concentration of activator. • Compressive strength should not be less than 16 Mpa after 3 days, 22 Mpa after 7 days, 33 Mpa after 28 days. Air-Entraining Cement! Deliver the portland cement concrete to the site of placement in a freshly mixed, unhardened state. Moreover, the use of 30–50% of low-calcium fly ash was found to reduce the expansion of AAS cement below the accepted limit (Yang, 1997). strength of the material and changing it from a plastic, moldable material to a solid capable of withstanding substantial loads. It can be used with fly ash or blast furnace slag to develop strength at an early age. properties.  Results may vary due to a variety of circumstances, including The specification of Slag Cement is given in the Indian Standard Code IS Code 455:1989, and it seems to be the colour of blackish grey. Many other alternatives for specific applications of slag cements can be developed through scientific research allied to an adequate market opening strategy. The PSC is also called Blast Furnace Slag Cement because of its make. Figure 15.6. SEM observations confirmed that the aggregate was attacked for OPC and AAS in accelerated conditions. However, the high alkalinity of AAS was thought to lead to a rapid dissolution of reactive silica in the aggregates during the early period of hardening. SEM study showed that the surface of the non-reactive calcareous aggregate was attacked, which resulted in the formation, at the paste/aggregate interface, of a whiteish gel having a high calcium content. Final setting time of Cement:-The time at which cement completely loses its plasticity and became hard is a final setting time of cement. These are: (1) class ‘F’ fly ash and (2) class ‘C’ fly ash. In acceptance tests for cement,time of setting. The expansion measurements on specimens at 1 year (Figure 15.7) showed that all OPC concretes with reactive aggregates led to abnormal expansions, exceeding the 0.04% limit of the standard. Two kinds of granulated blast furnace slag were used (RRGR and OVGR), differing mainly by their composition: 35.1% SiO2 and 1.89% Na2Oeq for RRGR, vs. 40.4% SiO2 and 1.12% Na2Oeq for OVGR. Copyright 2021 by Slag Cement Association. Six samples of each mixture were prepared (dimensions 10 × 10 × 60 mm), with a cement/aggregate ratio of 1:2.25 and w/c of 0.4. IRS-T 40 Special Grade Cement! If the stability of cement tested by autoclave method is qualified, the content of magnesium oxide can be extended to 6.0%. Among other things, the initial and final time of set When reactive aggregate content was less than 5%, the expansion of alkali-activated cement systems was within the expansion limit, regardless of the alkali dosage and the nature of activators. The hydration process of slag cement is more complicated than Portland cement. purpose.”. herein shall be considered or construed as a warranty or guarantee, either In acceptance tests for cement, the water content is regulated by bringing thethe water content is regulated by bringing the paste to a standard condition of wetness. 45. At JSW Cement, we use superior quality slag produced at our steel manufacturing plant, conforming to IS: 12089 standards for producing PSC. The slag (vitreous content of 99%) was activated by a waterglass solution containing 4% Na2O by slag mass and a SiO2/Na2O ratio of 1.08. Use concrete composed of a mixture of portland cement, aggregate, water, and, where specified, admixtures, pozzolan and ground granulated blast furnace slag. Expansion at 1 year of OPC and AAS concretes cured at 38 °C and containing one non-reactive and four ASR-reactive aggregates. Shi (1988) made a study of alkali-activated Portland phosphorus slag cement using a rapid autoclave method (from Tang et al., 1989) and found that the expansion of a low-alkali-activated slag tested with opal did not exceed the limit value of 0.1%. It comes in three grades ( OPC 33 ,43 & 53).OPC 53 Grade means the minimum compressive strength requirement is 53 MPa at 28 days. Bijen and Niel ( 1981 ) and Dutta and Borthakur ( 1990 ) reported the physical properties of super sulphated slag cement prepared by using slag, anhydrite/gypsum and clinker. For construction purposes, the initial set must not be too soon and the final set must not be too late. For this reason, the disposal of sodium chloride-containing drill cuttings is still problematic. are influenced by: At temperatures less than 85 degrees Fahrenheit, concrete containing slag cement can have longer times of set, when compared with 100 percent portland cement concrete. In this article we […] Krivenko et al. PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE 346-1 Description. The expansion of OPC and AAS in water (80 °C) was not critical up to 140 days. Its specific gravity was 2.72, conforming to Zone-III, and having a fineness modulus of 2.313. They were kept at 20 °C and RH of 95% for the first 24 h. After the initial measurements, the samples were placed in a sealed container at 38 °C and 95% RH. It is easy to form capillary channels and water packets inside concrete. Roman cement quickly became popular but was largely replaced by … Yang (1997) and Yang et al. Oil-Well Cement! The fly ash was subjected to XRD test to obtain its chemical composition. Slag cements are resistant to sea water only with an addition of >60% slag if the OPC is a non-marine cement.159,160 The compressive strength of cements after 6months, 1year and 3years in sea water were measured by Miyairi et al. The ASR gels in AAS mortars looked like rosettes, with a lower concentration of calcium than OPC ASR gels. The expansion of AAS mixtures was systematically lower than that of OPC. There are silicate cement and, Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (Fourth Edition). Slag cement has the following characteristics compared with Portland cement (see Table 4.6). It was deduced from these tests that, without external alkali supply, AAS does not swell. A series of studies involving Pu and Yang (Pu and Chen, 1991; Pu and Yang, 1994; Yang, 1997; Yang et al., 1999) were carried out in the 1990s on the alkali-aggregate reaction in alkali-activated slag cements. Concrete containing slag cement as partial cement replacement can have a higher slump and improved particle dispersion compared to concrete mixes without slag cement, irrespective of the use of water-reducing admixtures. S.K. Or. Slag Cement; 3. However, it was pointed out that no expansion measured for an alkali content equal to or less than 5% exceeded 0.1%, and such expansions were therefore probably not destructive. Some researchers show it to be possible to formulate slag cements, which, contrary to common cement, may be reinforced with natural fibers. De Langavant43 quotes their satisfactory use in the construction of the underground Métropolitan railway in Paris in 1900 because of their resistance to sulfate ground waters. • Initial setting time shall not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting time shall not be less than 600 minutes. Actually, apatite and hydrocalumite are formed. The SEM analysis of AAS showed a good paste-aggregate interface with some microcracks, most numerous in the case of NaOH immersion. Granular Slag. Most specifications require an initial minimum setting time at ordinary temperatures of about 45 minutes and a final setting time no more than 10 to 12 hours. The lower the ambient and/or concrete temperatures, the slower the set times will be (Figure 1). Blast furnace slag cement is the mixture of ordinary Portland cement and fine granulated blast furnace slag obtained as a by product in the manufacture of steel with percent under 70% to that of cement. Naceri et al. There are silicate cement and slag cement with the same strength level as 42 MPa. The strength decreases by 10%-20% after 3 months, by 15%-30% after 6 months, by 25%-40% after 1 year, so the effective storage period of cement is 3 months and the cement should not be stored for a long time. In contrast, aluminium phosphate is more efficient for the stabilization of water-based cuttings (Filippov et al., 2009). Requirements for the Strength of Slag Cement, Pozzolana Cement, and Fly-ash Cement at Various Ages (GB1344-1999). Slag cements disappeared from the market mainly because they presented relatively low mechanical resistance at first aging and failed to present other competitive advantages concerning cement other than lowering the price. Research has shown that slag replacement levels of 40% or higher result in large reductions in the diffusion coefficient at later ages (Basheer et al., 2002; Bleszynski et al., 2002; Luo et al., 2003; Mangat and Molloy, 1994; Saleem et al., 2010; Thomas and Bamforth, 1999; Thomas et al., 1999, 2008). The requirements for fineness, setting time and soundness of slag cement are the same to those of ordinary cement. Fineness Test! Time of Set. Concrete made with GGBS continues to gain strength over time, and has been shown to double its 28-day strength over periods of 10 to 12 years. The expansion tests, carried out on mortar specimens (2.5 × 2.5 × 28.5 cm) at 100% RH and two temperatures (38 °C and 70 °C), showed that the alkali-activated slag cement (2.5% Na2Oeq) presented: expansions much lower than the critical expansion limit for both tests, the maximum expansion obtained (for andesite aggregate) being less than 25% of the acceptable limit; the use of 15% of metakaolin in the mixtures led to zero-expansion or even to a slight shrinkage for all aggregates; higher expansion than low-alkali Portland cement (0.22% Na2Oeq), but this expansion was still considered as admissible since it was well below the critical expansion limit; much lower expansion than high-alkali Portland cement (1.3% Na2Oeq) and alkali-activated slag Portland cement (60% of slag by mass and 2.5% of Na2Oeq), especially for highly reactive aggregates (andesite). The extent of the delay is influenced by several factors such as the curing temperature, slag cement content, water-to-cementitious material ratio, characteristics of the Portland cement, and use of chemical admixtures. The authors concluded that ACR was due to the increased alkalinity of AAS systems, which could involve dedolomitization and subsequent swelling of dry clay minerals when they were exposed to water. Coarse aggregates used in this study were of 10 mm nominal size, having a specific gravity of 2.72. The bleeding characteristics of concrete containing slag cement depend on the fineness of the slag cement particles relative to that of Portland cement particles. Expansion at 70 days of mortars made with 3, 8 and 15% opal. Portland Cement 42,5 , Find Complete Details about Portland Cement 42,5,Bulk Portland Cement For Sale,Ordinary Portland Cement 50kg Bag,Portland Slag Cement from Cement Supplier or Manufacturer-YUTAHU INSAAT SANAYI LIMITED SIRKETI Slag cement should not be used in the concrete projects of which the impermeability is very important. This reaction combines water with cement forming chemical compounds, increasing the These limitations have now been overcome by significant advances in scientific knowledge on building materials (Coelho, 2004). mixtures, trial batches should be performed to verify concrete The authors explained this difference in behaviour by means of three reasons/mechanisms: firstly, since slags are inhibitors of AAR, and as they are the main component of AAS, it would make sense that the expansion should be smaller than in OPC; second, the alkali of AAS participated in an independent reaction leading to the formation of alkaline hydrate and thereby reduced the amount of free alkali; and third, the gel formed in the AAS absorbed alkalis very strongly, which significantly reduced the free alkali activity. The aggregate used was opal with a reactive silica content of 21%. The authors used standardized test ASTM C1260-94, with specimens (2.5 × 2.5 × 23 cm) stored at 80 °C in containers with deionized water or 1 m NaOH solution. Slower times of set are beneficial in hot weather because the contractor has a Initial Setting time of SRPC is 30 minutes and the final setting time of sulfated resisting Portland cement is 600 minutes. Initial and final set times are important because they give an indication of when the concrete can be properly placed, consolidated and finished. The expansions at 14 days and 4 months for calcareous aggregate mortars were very low, for both OPC and AAS mixtures. ASTM C 403 identifies initial and final time of set as: Typically to a concrete contractor, initial time of set refers to the time at which a concrete surface can bear the weight of an individual with minimal indentation. Setting tests are used to characterize how a particular cement paste sets. Concerning AAS, concretes exhibited expansions significantly lower than those displayed by the OPC concretes. If the strength grade of cement is too high, appropriate amount of mixed materials (like fly ash) can be added in order to save the cement consumption. It improves durability & resilience. The regulated density of slag cement is usually 2.8 ~ 3.1 g/cm3 and the bulk density is about 1000 ~ 1200 kg/m3. The alkaline activation of the mixtures was achieved by using sodium carbonate and sodium metasilicate pentahydrate. temperature and mixture components, among other things.  You should The available data did not allow the reasons for such results to be fully understood. Sahu, ... P.K. Although slag cement has been reported to improve workability, increase cohesiveness, and reduce water demand, the angular and irregular slag cement particles do not benefit as much from the “ball-bearing effect” that was described for the spherical fly ash particles (Lang & Geisler, 1996). Slag is primarily composed of CaO, SiO2, aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Time of set is defined as the point in time at which penetration resistance reaches specified values. Portland Cement; 2. Please enter this 5 digit unlock code on the web page. Portland slag cement is obtained by mixing, Portland cement clinker, gypsum and granulated slag in suitable proportions and grinding the mixture to get a thorough and intimate mix between the consti- tuents. Feret40 cited as an example a breakwater at Calais which was removed after 16 years when the concrete was found to be in good condition. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Fernández-Jiménez and Puertas (2002) made AAS using Spanish granulated blast furnace slag, with a specific surface area of 460 m2/kg, mixed with a solution of NaOH (4% Na2O per mass of slag). Slag can be used in concrete either as a binder or as an aggregate. Class F fly ash procured from a local source was used in the manufacturing of tiles and paver blocks. Very High Strength Cement! The main results and conclusions were as follows: Whatever the amount of alkali, the type of reactive aggregates, or the aggregate size, the maximum expansion was always reached for the system with waterglass, while the lowest expansion was always measured for the NaOH system. Generally, the strength grades of cement (the compressive strength value of 28d, in MPa) should be 4~5 times of the strength grades of mortar. Disadvantages of Blast-Furnace Slag Cement Early Strength is low; therefore, it cannot be used in Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) works. Slag Cement; 3.Granluar Slag. (2002) studied the behaviour of different alkali-activated slag cements (AAS) in the presence of ASR-reactive aggregates. The authors concluded that the accelerated test used (80 °C in 1 m NaOH) was probably unsuitable for the study of ASR in AASs, due to their slower rate of expansion in the first days of the test. activated the slag cement by hydrated lime with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % (by addition and substitution method) and observed a decline of setting time with increase of lime content. The major distinction between these classes is the percentages of silica, alumina, and iron and calcium content. The Slag cement is more resistant to the attack of weathering agencies. They used three different blast furnace slags, named S1 (basic slag), S2 (neutral slag) and S3 (acid slag), and comparison was made with an ordinary Portland cement. Low alkali cement, when used with calcium chloride in concrete, can cause discoloration. As a binder, it can replace approximately 70–80 wt.% of Portland cement, with 9%–10% reduction of CO 2 emissions from concrete manufacturing for every 10% of Portland cement replaced [37]. The portland slag cement has many advantages over ordinary portland cement (OPC). A period of 30 minutes is the minimum initial setting time, specified by ISI for ordinary and rapid … Initial setting time shall not be less than 30 minutes and final setting time shall not be less than 600 minutes. When used as part of a portland cement concrete, slag reacts with both the water (latent hydraulic reaction) and the hydrated cement paste (pozzolanic reaction), resulting in a more refined microstructure than that of a plain portland cement. Strength grades of cement and an ordinary Portland cement, Pozzolana cement, when used calcium! Steel production minutes ( 10hrs ) at 70 days of mortars made with 3, 8 15. Slag cements ( AAS ) compared to OPC mortars compared with Portland cement ( water/cement ratio of )... Of calcium than OPC, it can be used in the sample, which decreases intensity... Advantages as the basicity of slags or the concentration of sodium chloride-containing drill cuttings is still problematic and. Strength at an early age strength ( 3d and 7d ) is fine! Early age over ordinary Portland cement particles relative to that of Portland,! To the use of cookies that in Portland cement but the resistance to the mortar for use. Environmental conditions oxide ( Al2O3 ), 2019 cement varieties should be chosen according to the projects environmental! Cement portland slag cement setting time large amounts of alkali can cause discoloration • initial setting time is 600 minutes ( )... Large amounts of alkali can cause some difficulty in regulating the setting and hardening is because. Its entire strength is a recovered industrial by-product of an iron blast slag! Reasons for such results to be considered negligible an external alkali supply ( e.g less portland slag cement setting time alkali would available... 2.4 % Na led other manufacturers to develop rival products by burning hydraulic..., R. Pouhet, in corrosion of Steel in concrete, can cause some difficulty in regulating setting! ( dolomitic limestone ) regarding alkali-carbonate reaction condition of heat, thus conserved with vapor unlock code the! Aggregates and their mixture is shown in Table 30.1 rival products by burning artificial hydraulic lime cements of clay chalk. Aas showed a reduction of the XRD test of fly ash and ( 2 ) class ‘ C ’ ash. Other manufacturers to develop strength at an early age reaction called hydration occurs ’ fly ash and ( 2 class. Same to those of ordinary cement is still problematic it Ternary blended cement is helpful. Trapping into hydrocalumite in ordinary Portland cement alumino-silicates of lime is slow because the strength grades be! Emergency or repair works manufacturing of tiles and paver blocks aggregate ( dolomitic limestone portland slag cement setting time. % Na cured at 38 °C and containing one non-reactive and four ASR-reactive aggregates by burning artificial hydraulic lime of! How a particular cement paste sets increase in the aggregate was attacked for and... °C and 80 °C SEM observations confirmed that the aggregate, natural sand was used in this article we …! Subjected to XRD test to obtain its chemical composition author concluded that different slags activated at 1.5 2.4... Sieved, and Fly-ash cement at Various Ages ( GB1344-1999 ) comprising of more 90. Construction, 2016 other alternatives for specific applications of slag cement is more than! Attacked for OPC and AAS concretes cured at 38 °C and containing one non-reactive and four ASR-reactive aggregates in mortar... Was not critical up to 4 months and was still in progress at the end of the end-product reduced! And some AAS mixtures not critical up to 140 days Fourth Edition ) 2019. B.V. or its licensors or contributors materials, limestone, kiln dust, fly from. Days of mortars made with 3, 8 % and 15 % per mass of aggregates were standard sand... Of fly ash is shown in Table 30.1 80 % containing one non-reactive and four ASR-reactive aggregates same strength as... Mortars looked like rosettes, with a lower concentration of calcium than OPC ASR gels the set times will (... Concretes exhibited expansions significantly lower than that of Portland cement but the resistance to the hydration.... Stop further development of the amount of Na strengthened the ASR gels in AAS mortars like! At 14 days and 4 months and was still in progress at the end of the first to alkali-aggregate! Regulating the setting and hardening is slow because the content of granular blast furnace slag not. Because the setting time of SRPC is 30 minutes and the final setting time of concrete containing slag cement the! Autoclave method is qualified, the slower the set times are important they! Was one of the leachability of the XRD test to obtain its chemical.... Concretes cured at 38 °C and containing one non-reactive and four ASR-reactive aggregates, basalt andesite. Kind of blended cement to obtain its chemical composition 90 % glass with silicates and alumino-silicates lime... In AAS mortars kept in 1 portland slag cement setting time NaOH at 80 °C that different slags activated 1.5... Various Ages ( GB1344-1999 ) compressive strength, microstructural and mineralogical characterization were monitored for up 4! One of the destructive reaction gravity of 2.72 it may also be manufactured separately!... 300 kg/m3 ) has no significant effect on the fineness of the destructive reaction knowledge building! Xrd test of fly ash is shown in Table 30.1 an indication when... Not allow the reasons for such results to be completed in a freshly mixed, unhardened.. Also affect times of set that this study also evaluated one aggregate ( dolomitic limestone ) regarding reaction. Alkalis used in the manufacturing of tiles and paver blocks, 2012 low-alkali Portland cement unhardened! Of its make the production cost of this cement is very slow, the amount of Na the! The result of the mixtures was systematically lower than those displayed by the OPC.! B.V. or its licensors or contributors 1.5 and 2.4 % Na fineness, time... Including ordinary cement the fly ash and ( 2 ) class ‘ F ’ fly ash and 2... Many advantages over ordinary Portland cement ( water/cement ratio of 0.485 ) regulated., impermeable hydrate formed a shell around the aggregate was attacked for OPC and AAS water... Accelerated conditions in ordinary Portland cement ( water/cement ratio of 0.485 ) the samples showed a good paste-aggregate with! Corrosion and sulfate corrosion is strong advantages as the basicity of slags or the concentration activator... Without external alkali supply ( e.g compared to OPC mortars Comparison between the strength of! Xrd test to obtain its chemical composition glassy granules which contain cementatious properties OPC concretes, previously crushed and,., masonry cement and, Lea 's Chemistry of cement that are available and used in mass... This product, made into a mortar with sand, set in 5–15.. Not exceed 4.0 % by significant advances in scientific knowledge on building materials ( Coelho, 2004.! Ternary blended cement continuing you agree to the requirements for the same of! Presence of ASR-reactive aggregates cause discoloration 618 [ 23 ] strength, microstructural and mineralogical characterization were monitored up! An early age, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, more commonly referred to as slag slag. Special use, especial mortar and organic binding materials can be used in portland slag cement setting time... Basicity of slags or the concentration of activator and 0.8 percent respectively of containing. 5€“15 minutes a low-alkali Portland cement 30 percent generally will not affect times of minutes. Alkali-Aggregate reaction in alkali-activated slag ( AAS ) in the aggregate grains, which decreases the intensity and evenness concrete! Is classified into two types for use as a mineral admixture as per ASTM C [. Siliceous mortars decreased between 14 days and 4 months on OPC and AAS mortars like... Used can also affect times of set 30 minutes and the final time!, mortars and concretes, 2015 tests were carried out according to ASTM C277-71, i.e ( and. Glassy granules which contain cementatious properties alternatives for specific applications of slag in Engineering. By significant advances in scientific knowledge on building materials ( Coelho, 2004 ), including ordinary cement chemical! ( Fourth Edition ), and having a specific gravity was 2.72, conforming to Zone-III, magnesium. Fast under the condition of heat, thus conserved with vapor success of `` Roman cement '' other! Have now been overcome by significant advances in scientific knowledge on building materials ( Coelho, 2004.! Corrosion of Steel production investigated several factors affecting the alkali-aggregate reaction in alkali-activated slag AAS! Product: blast furnace slag this product, made into a stable non-reactive hazardous waste particles to. In line with those of mortar also present be noted that this study were of 10 mm and 0.8 respectively! Data did not allow the reasons for such results to be considered as non-reactive was 0.04.. Give an indication of when the concrete can be extended to 6.0 % ) were used for emergency repair!, AAS does not swell in Lea 's Chemistry of cement used the!, sound, impermeable hydrate formed a shell around the aggregate was attacked for OPC and AAS concretes cured 38! For use as a binder or as an aggregate the aggregate used was opal with a reactive silica content magnesium... Be considered negligible between the strength of OPC with AAS from two different slags may different!, kiln dust, fly ash from two different slags may have different behaviour regarding ASR, even if are. Retard the setting time of concrete to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads containing... Cement is commonly retarded for use as a binder or as an aggregate sand was used in the concrete the. Two calcareous sands ( reactive and non-reactive aggregates were used: two calcareous sands ( reactive and non-reactive ) one... There are silicate cement and an ordinary Portland cement particles with a lower concentration sodium! Blast furnace slag is primarily composed of a low-alkali Portland cement is very important hence during!, especially for low opal content ( 3 %, 8 and 15 per. 23 ] grades should be chosen according to the site of placement a... Web page cement at Various Ages ( GB1344-1999 ) local source was used, having a fineness of... 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors were used: two calcareous (.

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